Today, it’s all about security. If you aren’t practicing good security, you are probably going to be held accountable for the information that sneaks into your network, and especially the information that can find its way out of your network.
Script kids and hackers alike all begin their first “hacking” by targeting what’s easy – The poor, unsuspecting FTP server. All day long, doing its job of blindly sharing and accepting files. Here are the four key parts of FTP (and its cousin Telnet) that make it insecure.
Clear-text transmission: all communications are done in clear text, including usernames and passwords
Weak client authentication: both FTP and Telnet authenticate users through usernames and passwords, which, time and time again, have proven to be unreliable authentication methods. There is no support for more advanced authentication methods such as public/private key, Kerberos or digital certificates
No server authentication: this means that users have no way to be sure that the host they are communicating with really is the FTP server and not an attacker impersonating the server
No data integrity: problem here is that, assuming the same scenario as above, anyone could alter and corrupt the data being transmitted between the server and the client without being noticed
So you have your brand new shiny server with tons of disk capacity, and a clean install of Windows 2008 Server. You’re tasked with setting up the new company FTP site. If you have experience with setting up IIS and FTP services on Windows 2000/2003 server, then you know exactly how easy it is to setup FTP service. With Windows 2008 server, securing your FTP server became just as easy. And the benefits, immense!
Windows 2008 Server utilizes the method FTPES aka FTP Explicit mode. In explicit mode, an FTPS (FTP Secure) client must “explicitly request” security from an FTPS server and then step-up to a mutually agreed encryption method (usually the minimums are defined on the server). It currently isn’t packaged onto the Windows 2008 server install media, but information and the download can be found here http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34&g=6&i=1619
Without this extra handshaking and communication, your server-to-FTP client communication is susceptible to snooping and hijacking. With these simple steps, your server avoids the pitfalls listed above, that plague many FTP servers out on the web.
Securing your new Windows 2008 based FTP server comes down to these steps:
Make sure your users and clients have a current FTP client that supports the few FTPSecure methods.
Install IIS7 on your Windows 2008 Server
Install the required Microsoft extras (all available on the “roles” menu) for Microsoft FTP Publishing Service for IIS 7.0.
Install the Microsoft FTP Publishing Service for IIS 7.0 update. Now you’re nearly 80% complete
Create and apply security ACL’s to your FTP repository. The top 10 rules that very much still apply today are published at http://www.windowsecurity.com/articles/Secure_FTP_Server.html
Create a self signed server certificate, or purchase a server Certificate and import.
Tada, you’re done! Now your Windows 2008 FTP server is protected. From beginning to end, Connection, Authentication, Authorization, Data Request, Data transfer. It’s all encrypted.
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It still amazes me how many critical IT related tasks still require a floppy disk. I came upon one of these situations when trying to install Windows 2003 Server R2 on an extra Dell Workstation I had. Of course, it wanted the drivers on A:, which didn’t exist. Of course, you could always install a disk drive… Below are instructions how to address this issue without using a disk drive. The term is slipstreaming because it injects the files just as if it was part of the original installation media.
Download nLite (http://www.nliteos.com/). You could also download the Vista version called vLite (http://www.vlite.net).
Install the application
Select your original Windows XP, 2003 installation media location.
Select a target location to copy the installation files
Select the tasks you would like to perform (ie. install drivers, install service packs, remove components, etc…)
Choose to create an ISO image from your previous selections or Direct Burn to create a new CD image.
Install the OS using your CD, but this time, you don’t have to press F6 to try to load drivers.
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What Is VoIP?
Voice over Internet Protocol, or VoIP, is the current technology that allows people to transmit voice signals through the internet instead of over the phone. Most people have already become acquainted with the idea of sending voice over the internet through the use of headsets or microphones, but only a few realize the unique differences between the two.
While a direct connection to a single person or a separate server allowed users to chat with each other using microphones, users still had to have telephone services in order to receive out of network calls. VoIP eliminates the obvious limitations of in network voice communication, and expands it above and beyond our expectations.
Much like an e-mail, users don’t have to pay to send or receive them. E-mails can go anywhere users have set up a mailbox, at any time. Imagine e-mail transforming from text into voice, and virtual mailboxes becoming phones. The result is a completely free, new form of voice technology capable of sending voice from an internet line and converting it into a signal anyone with a phone can receive.
Businesses, especially smaller or medium sized companies, are always in need of more cost-effective tools and solutions. Businesses invest thousands of dollars in order to save money over a longer period of time. VoIP is a service that can potentially provide the results companies are looking for, in an even shorter amount of time. By instantly cutting costs with fewer drawbacks, VoIP has become a popular solution.
Telecommunication systems can be merged with current networks, allowing a business to save on the cost of network infrastructure.
Remote Web-based interfacing eliminates the need for on-site representatives to repair or troubleshoot phone network issues. Costs associated with on-site repairs are practically negated.
While saving money, VoIP users have found that the service provides much more than the average office phone services. While there were certain limitations with phone services (such as busy lines and expensive remote location calling bills), VoIP has sought to break these limits. Not only do clients receive phone services for nearly no cost, but they also receive tools tailored to make manage and design the network how they want it to be. VoIP puts the client in control.
Single IP networked VoIP lines enable extension dialing to expand to multiple, or even distant locations.
Applications are all extended to employees at any corporate location (including temporary or remote locations), including, but not limited to: conferencing, voice mail, unified communications, and click-to-dial services.
VoIP telecommunications systems are easily simplified into a single network (combined with data networks), allowing for easy management, and the elimination of multiple networks.
Remote troubleshooting and management through web-based interfaces. Settings can be changed for specific employees remotely, and without the need to contact service providers or phone system manufacturers.
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Problem: You need a plan for responding to major and minor disasters to let your company restore IT and business operations as quickly as possible.
1. Review Your Backup Strategy
Full daily backups of all essential servers and data is recommended.
Incremental and differential backups may not be efficient during major disasters, due to search times and hassle
If running Microsoft Exchange or SQL servers, consider making hourly backups of transaction logs for more recent restores
Store at least one tape off site weekly, and store on-site tapes in a data-approved fireproof safe
Have a compatible backup tape drive
2. Make Lots of Lists
Document Business Locations
Addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers, building management contact information
Include a map to the location and surrounding geographic area.
Compile an inventory listing of all network components at each business location. Include: model, manufacturer, description, serial number, and cost
Make a list of business critical applications running at each location
Include account numbers and any contract agreements
Include technical support contact information for major programs
Essential Vendor List
List of essential vendors, those who are necessary for business operations
Establish lines of credit with vendors incase bank funds are no longer readily available after disasters
Critical Customer List
Compile a list of customers for whom your company provides business critical services
Designate someone in the company to handle notifying these customers
Draw detailed diagrams for all networks in your organization, including LANs and WANs
3. Diagram Your Network
LAN Diagram: Make a diagram that corresponds to the physical layout of the office, as opposed to a logical one
Wireless access using Wi-Fi Protected Access security (WPA2) in order to operate in a new location
4. Go Wireless 5. Assign a Disaster Recovery Administrator
Assign Primary and Secondary disaster recovery administrators.· Ideally, each admin should live close to the office, and have each other’s contact information. Administrators are responsible for declaring the disaster, defining the disaster level, assessing and documenting damages, and coordinating recovery efforts. When a major disaster strikes, expect confusion, panic, and miscommunication. These uncontrollable forces interrupt efforts to keep the company up and running. By minimizing these challenges through planning with employees, efficiency increases. Assign employees into teams that carry out tasks the Disaster Recovery Administrator needs performed.
6. Assemble Teams
Damage Assessment/Notification Team
Collects information about initial status of damaged area, and communicates this to the appropriate members of staff and management
Compiles information from all areas of business including: business operations, IT, vendors, and customers
Office Space/Logistics Team
Assists in locating temporary office space in the event of a Level Four disaster
Responsible for transporting co-workers and equipment to the temporary site and are authorized to contract with moving companies and laborers as necessary
Oversees employee issues: staff scheduling, payroll functions, and staff relocation
Orders replacement equipment and restores computer systems.
Re-establishes connection to telephone service and internet/VPN connections
Public Relations TeamSafety and Security Team
Ensures safety of all employees during the recovery process.
Decides who will and who will not have access to any areas in the affected location.
Office Supply Team
7. Create a Disaster Recovery Website
A website where employees, vendors, and customers can obtain up-to-date information about the company after a disaster could be vital.· The website should be mirrored and co-hosted at two geographically separate business locations.
On the website, the disaster recovery team should post damage assessments for business locations, each location’s operational status, and when and where employees should report for work.
The site should allow for timestamped-messages to be posted by disaster recovery administrators. SSL certificates should be assigned to the website’s non-public pages.
8. Test Your Recovery Plan
Most IT professionals face level one or level two disasters regularly, and can quickly respond to such events. Level three and four disasters require a bit more effort. To respond to these more serious disasters, your disaster plan should be carefully organized.· Plan to assign whatever resources you do have control over in such situations. Test the plan after revisions, and discuss what worked and what didn’t.
9. Develop a Hacking Recovery Plan
Hacks attacks fall under the scope of disaster recovery plans.
Disconnect external lines. If you suspect that a hacker has compromised your network, disconnect any external WAN lines coming into the network. If the attack came from the Internet, taking down external lines will make it harder for the hacker to further compromise any machines and with luck prevent the hacker from compromising remote systems.
Perform a wireless sweep. Wireless networking makes it relatively simple for a hacker to set up a rogue Access Point (AP) and perform hacks from the parking lot. You can use a wireless sniffer perform a wireless sweep and locate APs in your immediate area.
10. Make the DRP a Living Document
· Review your disaster recovery plans at least once a year. If your company network changes frequently, you should probably create a semi-annual review. It’s best to know that an out-of-date disaster plan is almost as useless as having none.
WAN Diagram: Include all WAN locations and include IP addresses, model, serial numbers, and firmware revision of firewalls
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Backing up files can be troublesome. Speeds can reach disasterous new lows, and files tend to get corrupted along the way. It might just seem like more trouble than it’s worth, but in our experience, it makes the difference of hours and days. However, with the correct tools and information, it is possible to narrow down the problem, and even solve it. Below is a troubleshooting guide for common reasons why your server backup process may be causing errors.
1.Here is a summary of what we will be examining in order to better realize a potential problem:
oDocument any noticeable problems
oWhen did you notice the change or error(s)?
oHave there been any changes to the main backup server, media servers, or backup clients?
oWhat, if anything, have you done already to troubleshoot this problem?
oDo you have any site documentation?
oWhat are your expectations once the problem has been ratified
2.Hardware Related Slow-down
oThe speed of the disk controller and hardware errors caused by the disk drive, tape drive, disk controller, SCSI bus, or even improper cabling/termination can slow performance.
oTape drives are incompatible with SCSI Raid Controllers.
oFragmented disks (act of data being written on different physical locations of a disk) take much longer to back up. Not only will it affect the rate at which data is written, but it will affect your overall system performance. A solution to this is simply by defragmentation.
oThe amount of available memory greatly impacts backup speed. A lack of free hard disk space is a commonly overlooked issue. This is generally due to improper file paging settings.
3.File Types and Compression
oThe average file can potentially compress at a 2:1 ratio if hardware compression is used. Backup speed could potentially double if average compression is used prior.
oThe total number of files on a disk, and the relative size of each file is important in calculating backup speed. The fewer large files, the faster the backup.
oBlock size has an important role in compression, and thus, affects backup speed. The bigger the block size, the more capable the drive is to achieve better throughput and increased capacity. It is not recommended to increase the Block Size above the default.
oThe backup speed for a remote disk is limited by the speed of the physical connection. The rate at which a remote server’s hard disks are able to be backed up depends on the make/model of network cards, the mode/frame type configuration for the adapter, the connectivity equipment (hubs, switches, routers, and so on), and the Windows NT 4 or Windows 2000 settings.
oA commonly overlooked reason for slowdown on network backups can be the configuration of the network itself. Certain features such as “Full-Duplex” and “Auto-Detect” may not be fully supported in every environment. Setting the speed to 100Mb and duplex to half/full on the server side, and 100 MB on the switch port is the common practice. Dependent on the resulting speeds, half or full duplex will be the better solution.
5.Methods to potentially improve tape backup performance
oMake sure the tape drive is properly defined for the host system. It is common for a SCSI host to disable the adaptive cache on the drive if it is not recognized. The cache enables features like drive streaming to operate at peak performance.
oPut the tape drive on a non-Raid controller by itself.
oMake sure all settings in the controller’s Post Bios Setup Utility are correct.
oMake sure the proper driver updates have been applied for the SCSI Controllers.
oConfirm proper cabling/termination for the devices being used.
oUpdate the firmware on the tape drive to the latest level. In some cases, the firmware may actually require downgrading to improve performance.
oCheck the tape drive and tape media statistics to see if errors occur when backups run.
oCheck the Windows NT or Windows 2000 Application Event Logs for warnings/errors.